Access control is one of the main functions of a security guard. This post is the most important post when it comes to company/client safety and protection.
Access control measures focus on regulating the movement of people, vehicles, and packages at the entrance or exit locations in/on a facility. There are "soft" security and "hard" security measures depending on the Threat Potential/Assessment of the facility. Simple or soft access controls are implemented at public facilities like a mall or shopping centers, and sports arenas. Complex or hard access control would be seen at government facilities, power plants including nuclear, and other critical areas of infrastructures.
The measures along with the security officer will assist in Deterrence, Denial, and Delaying access to all unauthorized individuals. Companies may have ID badges or card readers at the entrances and access locations. Barries are used at access control such as card readers that records the time and date of entry and egress. These barriers include turnstiles or card swipes.
Things that control access are doors, windows, lock, and key, yellow caution tape, proper identification, guest passes, and of course the security officer. During your patrols, you will physically check all doors to make sure there are secure. Access Control can track entrances and exits. Security can track individuals with visitors' logs and security cameras. Security can prevent unauthorized individuals by the use of gates, electronic locks, and biometrics.
A Biometric system verifies identity through fingerprints, hand scans, iris, or retina scans. Also, Facial recognition software. Facial recognition, from a security standpoint, is the worse form of identification. Post orders will have the procedures for employees who forgot/ lost their I.D. If post orders say, No Entry w/out ID that means No Entry w/out ID. Period. Call a Supervisor if any problem. TRUST BUT VERIFY!
Scatter your patrols. Don't be predictable. If you are supposed to patrol an area every hour, that doesn't mean every hour on the hour. Change the time you start. Five minutes before or five minutes after. Change it up. (Follow your post orders) Only authorized individuals will be allowed access to a facility or property. Check for open locks and doors and secure them making a note in your activity report that you found an open door or lock. If you feel that someone may have entered without authority, follow your post orders for an "unauthorized person on property".
Facilities may have restricted areas. These areas are for authorized individuals. Companies may limit the access to their floor in a larger building. In larger buildings over 100 feet, there should be re-entrance back into the building every 4th floor. They may have to follow check-in requirements or procedures. They may also restrict packages and postal items from entry. Some companies XRay their incoming parcels. Security personnel must be trained in how to recognize and report suspicious packages, and should Never touch or move them.
Since 9/11, companies are implementing procedures for anthrax and other biological or chemical weapons with detection systems. Companies are assessing their threat potential and vulnerabilities against terrorist attacks.
Considerations to take into account for potential threat elements;
Government agency buildings eg. courthouses
What is the type of business ( Sensitive Information)
Nuclear power plants and the presence of a large number of hazardous materials could be a target for terrorists
Assess the potential for a mass casualty event
Proper identification would be a driver's license, picture I.D., US passport or official passport from other countries, Resident Alien card, Police or State agency ID card, and Active Duty military ID card.
Next to a FireGuard, the Security Officer, at Access Control, is one of the most important people in the Company.